The exhibition, planned for 2017, will be one of the London gallery's biggest ever and will show work from his earliest years.
The exhibition, which opens in February 2017, will offer an "unprecedented overview" of the popular artist's achievements in painting, drawing, print, photography and video.
The retrospective will show how Hockney stamped his name on the post-modern art scene and continued to challenge the conventions of picture-making for more than half a century.
The 2017 show will be one of the Tate's biggest exhibitions and the largest retrospective of Hockney's work for around 30 years, the gallery said.
It will span six decades - from Hockney's first appearance on the public stage as a student in 1961, to work produced since the Bradford-born artist returned to California in 2013.
It will feature early work such as the Love paintings (1960 and 1961), portraits of family and friends and self-portraits, and range from the sunshine and swimming pools of California to the Yorkshire landscape that caught Hockney's imagination as a teenager.
The 78-year-old, widely considered to be Britain's greatest living artist, said: "It has been a pleasure to revisit works I made decades ago, including some of my earliest paintings.
"Many of them seem like old friends to me now.
"We're looking back over a lifetime with this exhibition, and I hope, like me, people will enjoy seeing how the roots of my new and recent work can be seen in the developments over the years."
After opening in London the exhibition, organised in collaboration with the Centre Pompidou and The Metropolitan Museum, will appear in Paris and New York.
:: The David Hockney retrospective will run from 9 February to 29 May, 2017, at Tate Britain.