Masters of Analytical Art (group)
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"Masters of Analytical Art" (MAI) - art association disciples and followers of Pavel Filonov, existed in Leningrad from 1925 to 1941 (formally until 1932).
The team of "Masters of Analytical Art" ("group Filonov," "School of Filonov") appeared in 1925 among the students of the Leningrad VHUTEINa engaged under the direction of Pavel Filonov and committed by its picturesque. At the core of the ideology of the group were the views of Pavel Filonov in the visual arts, he made in his major theoretical work to "make a picture" (1914), "The Declaration of the World High Noon" (1923), "The ideology and the principle of analytical art made" (1923) [1 ]. Team members have sought to embody in his paintings, graphics, theater and arts and design works Filonovsky principle of "made", to reveal the inner essence of human social life, so they create images of Soviet reality is often expressed with "a touch of surreal alienation."Novikov, Filonov took the young artists in his studio at his apartment, on the Petrograd side (st. Writers, 19). The band has changed several times over the years of existence in classes attended by over 70 artists (TN Glebova, BI Gurvich, SL Zaklikovskaya, EA Kibrik, PM Kondratyev, AI Poret A. Sasha T., MP Tsybasov et al.). Officially, the group "Masters of Analytical Art" existed until the spring of 1932, however, meetings and joint sessions followers Filonov's method in his workshop continued until his death at the beginning of December 1941.
In 1927 (April 17-May 17) held a collective exhibition "Masters of Analytical Art" at the Leningrad House press (P. Filonov did not participate in the exhibition). In the future, the work of individual members of the band were exhibited "Modern Leningrad artistic groups" (1928-29) , "Artists of the RSFSR for 15 years" (1932-33) , and some others. Team members worked together on the design of the theater hall and the foyer of the House of Leningrad printing and setting it in 1927, the play Gogol "Inspector" (directed by IG Terentiev). After the exhibition in the Press House in a team there was a split, and artists who do not agree with the position of Filonov, left the team: including BI Gurvich, EA Kibrik, VA Sulimo-Samuyllo, many other artists.
In 1928, an exhibition team MAI. at the Academy of Arts in Leningrad. Other exhibitions, which involved a team of MAI:
1928-1929. Exhibition of paintings and sculptures. "Modern Leningrad artistic groups." Catalog. Linen. region. Council of Trade Unions Cultural House. Palace of Culture. Gorky.
1930. The first citywide exhibition of Fine Arts. Leningrad. Rooms Academy of Fine Arts. Catalog. (Len. Str. Department Rabis Union.) In 1930.
1932 "Artists of RSFSR for 15 years. Paintings, drawings, sculpture. ". Catalog. The State Russian Museum 1932.
1933. "Artists of RSFSR for 15 years. Paintings, drawings, sculpture. "The Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow
Some of the representatives of the collective MAI later became well-known artists, however, as rightly otemechali Manin V. Muratov, A. and A. Roshchin, "never reached the level of the teachers." 
In 1932, the publishing house «Academia» was proposed PN Filonov illustrate the Finnish epic "Kalevala" Filonov accepted the offer, provided that illustrate the book will be a team of his students, under his artistic direction. "The work was carried out strictly on the basis of the analytical method PN Filonov <...> works every at home twice a week, going from P.N.Filonova. <...> The largest number of illustrations made by A. Poret. Many M. did Tsybasov. Some managed to make only one picture. "
The book was published in the following design:
Kalevala. M .; A .: Academia, 1932. (Reprinted 1933).
Dust jacket of the first edition (teamwork): T. Glebova, A. Poret, E. Bortsova, Vakhrameev K., S. Zaklikovskaya, P. Salzman, Ivanova, E. Woods, Makarov, N. Sobolev, L. Tagrin, M. Tsybasov. Bookends: T. Glebova, A. Poret. Cover Pages: left - A. Poret, right - T. Glebova.
Participants [edit | edit wiki text]
Avlas Vladimir Dmitrievich (1904-1975) - member of the MAI.
Bortsova Elena (1903-19 ??) - a member of the MAI from 1925 to 1932
Vakhrameev Konstantin (1889-1934) - member of the IAI since 1925
Tatiana Glebova (1900-1985) - member of the MAI from 1926 to 1931
Boris Isaakovich Gurvich (1905-1985) - member of the MAI from 1924 to 1930
Evgrafov Nikolai Ivanovich (1904 August 1941) - a member of the MAI from 1925 to 1932 
Zaklikovskaya Lyudvigovna Sofia (1899-1975) - member of the MAI from 1927 to 1932
Salzman, Paul Y. (1912-1985) - member of the MAI from 1930 to 1932
Lyudmila Ivanova (1904-1978)
Nina Ivanova (19 ?? - 197?) - A member of the MAI to 1932
Kapitanova (Arapova) Julia G. (1889-1976) - member of the MAI from 1929 to 1932
Kibrik Adol'fovich Eugene (1906-1978) - member of the MAI from 1926 to 1930
Pavel Kondratiev (1902-1985) - member of the MAI from 1927 to 1932
Lukstyn Yan Karlovich (1887-193?) - A member of the MAI from 1925 to 1927
Michael K. Makarov (1904-196?) - A member of the IAI since 1927
Mordvinova Alevtina E. (1900-1980) - member of the IAI since 1927
Georgy Novikov (1898-1981) - member of the MAI from 1927 to 1932
Poret Alisa Ivanovna (1902-1984) - member of the IAI since 1925
Sasha Andrew T. (1896-1965) - member of the MAI from 1927 to 1930
Innocent Ivanovich Suvorov (1898-1947) was a member of the IPA 1925-1930
Sulimo-Samuyllo Angelovič Vsevolod (1903-1965) - member of the MAI from 1926 to 1932
Tagrin Lubov (1884-1955) - member of the IAI since 1929
Tenisman (Tennisman) Edward Alma (ok.1906- 1941/42), the member States of the MAI 1925-1930 
Fedorov, Arseny Dmitrievich (1894-1941) 
Hrzhanovsky Yuri (1905-1987) - member of the MAI from 1927 to 1930
Tsybasov Mikhail Petrovich (1904-1967) - member of the IAI since 1926
- Авлас Владимир Дмитриевич (1904—1975) — член МАИ.
- Борцова Елена Николаевна (1903-19??) — член МАИ с 1925 по 1932 г.
- Вахрамеев Константин Васильевич (1889—1934) — член МАИ с 1925 г.
- Глебова Татьяна Николаевна (1900—1985) — член МАИ с 1926 по 1931 г.
- Гурвич Борис Исаакович (1905—1985) — член МАИ с 1924 по 1930 г.
- Евграфов Николай Иванович (1904— август 1941) — член МАИ с 1925 по 1932 г.
- Закликовская Софья Людвиговна (1899—1975) — член МАИ с 1927 по 1932 г.
- Зальцман Павел Яковлевич (1912—1985) — член МАИ с 1930 по 1932 г.
- Иванова Людмила Александровна (1904—1978)
- Иванова Нина Владимировна (19??-197?) — член МАИ по 1932 г.
- Капитанова (Арапова) Юлия Григорьевна (1889—1976) — член МАИ с 1929 по 1932 г.
- Кибрик Евгений Адольфович (1906—1978) — член МАИ с 1926 по 1930 г.
- Кондратьев Павел Михайлович (1902—1985) — член МАИ с 1927 по 1932 г.
- Лукстынь Ян Карлович (1887—193?) — член МАИ с 1925 по 1927 г.
- Макаров Михаил Константинович (1904—196?) — член МАИ с 1927 г.
- Мордвинова Алевтина Евгеньевна (1900—1980) — член МАИ с 1927 г.
- Новиков Георгий Александрович (1898—1981) — член МАИ с 1927 по 1932 г.
- Порет Алиса Ивановна (1902—1984) — член МАИ с 1925 г.
- Сашин Андрей Тимофеевич (1896—1965) — член МАИ с 1927 по 1930 г.
- Суворов Иннокентий Иванович (1898—1947) член МАИ 1925—1930 г.
- Сулимо-Самуйлло Всеволод Ангелович (1903—1965) — член МАИ с 1926 по 1932 г.
- Тагрина Любовь Николаевна (1884—1955) — член МАИ с 1929 г.
- Тенисман(Тэннисман) Эдуард Альма (ок.1906- 1941/42) -член МАИ 1925—1930 г. 
- Фёдоров, Арсений Дмитриевич (1894-1941) 
- Хржановский Юрий Борисович (1905—1987) — член МАИ с 1927 по 1930 г.
- Цыбасов Михаил Петрович (1904—1967) — член МАИ с 1926 г.
Photograph of the first Constructivist Exhibition, 1921.The term Construction Art was first used as a derisive term by Kazimir Malevich to describe the work of Alexander Rodchenko in 1917. Constructivism first appears as a positive term in Naum Gabo's Realistic Manifesto of 1920. Aleksei Gan used the word as the title of his book Constructivism, printed in 1922. Constructivism was a post-World War I development of Russian Futurism, and particularly of the 'counter reliefs' of Vladimir Tatlin, which had been exhibited in 1915. The term itself would be invented by the sculptors Antoine Pevsner and Naum Gabo, who developed an industrial, angular style of work, while its geometric abstraction owed something to the Suprematism of Kazimir Malevich.
Constructivism as theory and practice was derived largely from a series of debates at INKhUK (Institute of Artistic Culture) in Moscow, from 1920–22. After deposing its first chairman, Wassily Kandinsky, for his 'mysticism', The First Working Group of Constructivists (including Liubov Popova, Alexander Vesnin, Rodchenko, Varvara Stepanova, and the theorists Alexei Gan, Boris Arvatov and Osip Brik) would develop a definition of Constructivism as the combination of faktura: the particular material properties of an object, and tektonika, its spatial presence. Initially the Constructivists worked on three-dimensional constructions as a means of participating in industry: the OBMOKhU (Society of Young Artists) exhibition showed these three dimensional compositions, by Rodchenko, Stepanova, Karl Ioganson and the Stenberg brothers. Later the definition would be extended to designs for two-dimensional works such as books or posters, with montage and factography becoming important concepts.
Art in the service of the Revolution
Agitprop poster by Mayakovsky.As much as involving itself in designs for industry, the Constructivists worked on public festivals and street designs for the post-October revolution Bolshevik government. Perhaps the most famous of these was in Vitebsk, where Malevich's UNOVIS Group painted propaganda plaques and buildings (the best known being El Lissitzky's poster Beat the Whites with the Red Wedge (1919)). Inspired by Vladimir Mayakovsky's declaration 'the streets our brushes, the squares our palettes', artists and designers participated in public life during the Civil War. A striking instance was the proposed festival for the Comintern congress in 1921 by Alexander Vesnin and Liubov Popova, which resembled the constructions of the OBMOKhU exhibition as well as their work for the theatre. There was a great deal of overlap during this period between Constructivism and Proletkult, the ideas of which concerning the need to create an entirely new culture struck a chord with the Constructivists. In addition some Constructivists were heavily involved in the 'ROSTA Windows', a Bolshevik public information campaign of around 1920. Some of the most famous of these were by the poet-painter Vladimir Mayakovsky and Vladimir Lebedev.
The constructivists tried to create works that would make the viewer an active viewer of the artwork. In this it had similarities with the Russian Formalists' theory of 'making strange', and accordingly their main theorist Viktor Shklovsky worked closely with the Constructivists, as did other formalists like the Arch Bishop. These theories were tested in theatre, particularly with the work of Vsevolod Meyerhold, who had established what he called 'October in the theatre'. Meyerhold developed a 'biomechanical' acting style, which was influenced both by the circus and by the 'scientific management' theories of Frederick Winslow Taylor. Meanwhile, the stage sets by the likes of Vesnin, Popova and Stepanova tested Constructivist spatial ideas in a public form. A more populist version of this was developed by Alexander Tairov, with stage sets by Aleksandra Ekster and the Stenberg brothers. These ideas would influence German directors like Bertolt Brecht and Erwin Piscator, as well as the early Soviet cinema.
Tatlin, 'Construction Art' and ProductivismThe key work of Constructivism was Vladimir Tatlin's proposal for the Monument to the Third International (Tatlin's Tower) (1919–20) which combined a machine aesthetic with dynamic components celebrating technology such as searchlights and projection screens. Gabo publicly criticized Tatlin's design saying Either create functional houses and bridges or create pure art, not both. This had already caused a major controversy in the Moscow group in 1920 when Gabo and Pevsner's Realistic Manifesto asserted a spiritual core for the movement. This was opposed to the utilitarian and adaptable version of Constructivism held by Tatlin and Rodchenko. Tatlin's work was immediately hailed by artists in Germany as a revolution in art: a 1920 photograph shows George Groszand John Heartfield holding a placard saying 'Art is Dead – Long Live Tatlin's Machine Art', while the designs for the tower were published in Bruno Taut's magazine Fruhlicht. The tower was never built, however, due to a lack of money following the revolution.
Tatlin's tower started a period of exchange of ideas between Moscow and Berlin, something reinforced by El Lissitzky and Ilya Ehrenburg's Soviet-German magazine Veshch-Gegenstand-Objet which spread the idea of 'Construction art', as did the Constructivist exhibits at the 1922 Russische Ausstellung in Berlin, organised by Lissitzky. A 'Constructivist international' was formed, which met with Dadaists and De Stijl artists in Germany in 1922. Participants in this short-lived international included Lissitzky, Hans Richter, and László Moholy-Nagy. However the idea of 'art' was becoming anathema to the Russian Constructivists: the INKhUK debates of 1920–22 had culminated in the theory of Productivism propounded by Osip Brik and others, which demanded direct participation in industry and the end of easel painting. Tatlin was one of the first to attempt to transfer his talents to industrial production, with his designs for an economical stove, for workers' overalls and for furniture. The Utopian element in Constructivism was maintained by his 'letatlin', a flying machine which he worked on until the 1930s.
Constructivism and consumerismIn 1921, the New Economic Policy was established in the Soviet Union, which opened up more market opportunities in the Soviet economy. Rodchenko, Stepanova, and others made advertising for the co-operatives that were now in competition with other commercial businesses. The poet-artist Vladimir Mayakovsky and Rodchenko worked together and called themselves "advertising constructors". Together they designed eye-catching images featuring bright colours, geometric shapes, and bold lettering. The lettering of most of these designs was intended to create a reaction, and function emotionally – most were designed for the state-owned department store Mosselprom in Moscow, for pacifiers, cooking oil, beer and other quotidian products, with Mayakovsky claiming that his 'nowhere else but Mosselprom' verse was one of the best he ever wrote. Additionally, several artists tried to work with clothes design with varying success: Varvara Stepanova designed dresses with bright, geometric patterns that were mass-produced, although workers' overalls by Tatlin and Rodchenko never achieved this and remained prototypes. The painter and designer Lyubov Popova designed a kind of Constructivist flapper dress before her early death in 1924, the plans for which were published in the journal LEF. In these works, Constructivists showed a willingness to involve themselves in fashion and the mass market, which they tried to balance with their Communist beliefs.